1. "God and the Sacraments" (S. 143)
    1. "Sacraments as the Revelation of God" (S. 143)
      1. Original created harmony between God and man.
        1. Destroyed by sin.
        2. Begins to be restored by means of grace.
        3. Believers learn that their Redeemer is their Creator.
        4. Ps 100:3 (note: "LORD"; "God")
      2. "words" and "earthly elements"
        1. Through them, He works salvation.
        2. Ordinary things become "sacramental" things.
        3. We do not confront God as He is.
        4. Confront Him in forms He chooses to be known, "the revealed God" (S. 143).
        5. He is present in all means of grace for our salvation.
        6. He is only agent.
        7. See beyond the minister.
      3. Two kinds of unbelief: (S. 144)
        1. Ignores or rejects God and does not hear His Word.
        2. Believes the Word is God's but reinterprets it.
      4. God's invitation in means of grace.
        1. Creates faith.
        2. Also tests faith: does it really believe what He says.
    2. "Sacraments as Trinitarian Acts" (S. 144)
      1. All means of grace: truly trinitarian acts
      2. In them:
        1. Christ along with Spirit present.
        2. Invites recipients to come in faith to Father.
      3. They reflect eternal relationship of one divine Person to other.
      4. Trinity:
        1. Father eternally begets Son who makes believers His children in baptism and co-heirs with Jesus.
        2. Jn 1:12,13.
        3. Ro. 8:[16], 17.
        4. Spirit completes and accomplishes regeneration.
        5. Jn 3:(5-)8.
        6. Spirit sent into world by Father and Son.
        7. Just as Father is eternal origin within the Trinity, Spirit is its eternal completion.
        8. What is:
          1. Begun by Father, and
          2. Accomplished by Son's redemption.
          3. Is brought to completion by Spirit's creating faith in believers (S. 145)
      5. Outward forms of means of grace:
        1. Coverings for the Trinity.
        2. In which, He comes to forgive sinners.
        3. And declare them righteous.
      6. Sacramental theology
        1. Flows out of prior understanding of God as three Persons.
        2. The God at work in His creation for our salvation.
      7. Baptism and Lord's Supper
        1. Instituted by Christ.
        2. Also acts of the Father.
        3. Father sent Son as atonement.
        4. Now gives us the Spirit that benefits can be received.
        5. Are also works of Spirit.
        6. Spirit makes ordinary things serve divine purposes (S. 145).
        7. Spirit
          1. Not "the solitary agent in the sacramental action" (S. 145)
          2. Spirit "addresses the words of the Son who is sent by the Father to the elements" (id)
      8. Christ and the Spirit.
        1. Reformed.
          1. Place emphasis on Spirit's work in connection to sacraments.
          2. To compensate for absence of humanity of Jesus.
        2. Lutherans
          1. Emphasize sacrament's Christological aspects.
          2. Sacraments are His presence in worshipping congregation.
          3. Sacraments: anchored in His death and resurrection.
          4. are "the continuation and extension of them among believers" (S. 145)
        3. F.C.
          1. Articles on Supper and Christology (VII and VIII) are complementary.
          2. Each informs other
          3. F.C. VII, ("Holy Supper"), VIII, ("Person of Christ")
            (S.D: Tappert, pp. 568-610; Kolb & Wengert, pp. 591-634)
        4. Word
          1. Not merely a spoken audible word.
          2. Is Jesus Himself, "who is God's creating and incarnate Word".
          3. Jn 1:1-3.
        5. Baptism
          1. LC IV, 41 (Tappert, p. 441; Kolb & Wengert, p. 461)
          2. Primarily a Christological event.
          3. S.C., Sacrament of Holy Baptism, para 3-4 (9-14) (Tappert, p. 349; Kolb & Wengert, p. 359f)
          4. But His work in atonement and sacrament always the work of Father and the Spirit.
        6. Lord's Supper
          1. L.C. V, 70 (Tappert, v.454; Kolb & Wengert, p.474)
          2. Offers forgiveness because He gives His body and blood by which sacrifice was made to God.
          3. L.C., Sacrament of the Altar, para. 31 (Tappert, p.450, Kolb & Wengert, p. 469f)
        7. Confession and Absolution
          1. Is Christological and Trinitarian event.
          2. Christ present "in the person of the pastor"
          3. To comfort believer with the Spirit.
          4. To bring believer back to Father (S. 146)
          5. Sacraments take Christology one step further.
          6. Sacraments make "Christ real for the church" (S. 146).
        8. Three Persons of Trinity
          1. Participate as fully in means of grace as in incarnation and resurrection.
          2. Means of grace as much the work of One Person as of another.
          3. Works of our salvation are the works of one God.
          4. Gifts bestowed by Spirit were first sacrifices made by Son and before that were the Father's created things (S. 146)
          5. Together, these gifts are works of one God.
          6. 1Co 12:3,4.

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