1. "God and the Sacraments" con'd. (S. 143)
    1. "The Spirit and the Sacraments in the Lutheran Confessions" (S. 151)
      1. In Lutheran Confessions:
        1. Discussion of Spirit's role in sacraments set against background of Reformed teachings.
        2. Reformed:
          1. Give Spirit greater role than Jesus.
          2. Due to their teaching re: limitations on His human nature not participating fully in sacraments.
        3. Lutheran Confessions
          1. "Sacraments are the Spirit's good gifts to Christ's church." (id)
          2. S.A. III, VIII, 7,10 (Tappert, p. 313: Kolb & Wengert, pp. 322, 323)
          3. F.C., S.D., XI, 76 (Tappert, pp. 628, 629; Kolb & Wengert, p. 652)
      2. Word and the Spirit
        1. Are distinct
        2. Word gives distinctive character to each sacrament.
        3. Word is "vehicle of the Trinity by which the elements become sacraments." (S. 151)
        4. Spirit's role in baptism established by His participation in Jesus' baptism. [Mt. 3:16,17]
        5. 1Co 10:3,4.
          1. "same spiritual": auto pneumatikon.
          2. might seem to support Reformed's teaching re: "spiritual" not actual eating, etc.
          3. But, refers to real food and drink "provided by the Holy Spirit as gifts of grace." (id)
        6. 1Jn 5:7-8
          1. Understand as references to baptism and the Supper.
          2. Lutherans understand passage to mean "Spirit is a witness together with these two sacraments." (id)
        7. Jn 14:22-[26]
          1. Jesus will come with the Father.
          2. Promise to send the Spirit applies particularly to the sacraments. (S. 152)
          3. In sacraments, Spirit gives Himself.
        8. Spirit's presence in sacraments.
          1. Essential not incidental.
          2. There is no other way Spirit works and creates faith. (id).
          3. Word and Spirit are the only two efficient causes of conversion.
          4. F.C., Ep II, 19 (Tappert, p. 472; Kolb & Wengert, p. 494)
          5. S.A., III, VIII, 10 (again) (Tappert, p. 313; Kolb & Wengert, p. 323)
          6. S.A., III, [VIII], [3,4] 5-6, (Tappert, 312, 313; Kolb & Wengert, p. 322); Luther's real opponents not Rome, but Zwingli and Enthusiasts. (S. 152)
          7. Also disagreed with Rome's teaching that Spirit worked apart from the Word in conversion.
          8. S.A. III, VIII, 7 (Tappert, p. 313; Kolb & Wengert, 322)
          9. S.A. III, VIII, 11, 12 (Tappert, p. 313; Kolb & Wengert, p. 323)
          10. F.C. Ep II, 4,5 (Tappert, p. 470; Kolb & Wengert, p. 492)
          11. Zwingli and Calvin still wanted to keep sacraments while teaching they were dispensable.
          12. L.C. IV, 14-18 (Tappert, p. 438; Kolb & Wengert, p. 458)
          13. In sacraments, "the Holy Spirit, the Word of God, and the elements constitute a unity" (S. 153)
    2. "The Means of Grace as the Locus on the Holy Spirit" (S. 153)
      1. Holy Spirit in the Lutheran Confessions.
        1. No separate article is typical of Lutheran Theology.
        2. Apart from article on the Trinity, Spirit prominent in articles re:
          1. Law and Gospel
          2. the Sacraments.
      2. Earliest creed's 3rd Article re: works of Spirit without defining His person.
      3. Spirit's person first defined by Council of Constantinople (A.D. 381) handed down as Nicene Creed.
      4. Conversion
        1. Involves faith in Jesus Christ.
        2. Does not require knowledge of Spirit's person and work. (S. 153)
        3. First act of confession "is coming to understand who Jesus is as God's Son". (id)
        4. Then realize that this recognition is worked by Spirit.
      5. Believer's knowledge of Spirit within Trinity:
        1. Follows knowledge of Son and Father.
        2. Mt 28:19.
        3. 1Co 12:13.
    3. "The Historical Jesus and the Means of Grace" (S. 154)
      1. Jesus' presence in sacraments and His institution of them necessary for defining sacraments.
      2. Therefore, must presuppose His earthly existence.
      3. "Quest for the historical Jesus"
        1. Name given to scholars questioning the historical reliability of the gospels.
        2. Claims scholarly objectivity.
        3. But various methods used.
        4. Has led to varied or opposing conclusions.
        5. Place origin of "sacraments" not in Jesus, but rather early Christian communities.
      4. If question whether He really lived, died and rose, His institution, relationship to them, and sending Spirit are moot.
      5. Doubts about His institution of sacraments create serious doubts about rites performed in those church bodies allowing such doubt.

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