The Lord's Prayer
Lesson Three
  1. Matthew and Luke compared
    1. Texts
      1. Mt. 6:9-13.
      2. Lk 11:2-4.
    2. Differences will be examined as we go forward.
    3. Common title "The Lord's Prayer".
      1. Reflects Luke's version (SM 154)
      2. Lk. 11:1 "Lord, teach us to pray".
    4. Luke's version
      1. Not contained in his parallel to Sermon on the Mount [Lk. 6:20ff]
      2. Is in section on prayer in general. (id)
      3. Somewhat shorter than Matthew's.
      4. Absence of "our" in "our Father".
        1. May point to private prayer.
        2. As opposed to corporate use by Matthew. (id)
        3. Matthew read as catechesis during church's worship services. (D 224)
        4. Rubrics (liturgical regulations) provided in Matthew.
          1. How to give offerings (Mt. 6:1-4).
          2. Pray (Mt. 6:5-15).
          3. Fast (Mt. 6:16-18).
    5. Debate continues re: which version is older (SM 155)
  2. Basic structure
    1. Per MC: 3 parts.
      1. Entrance or preface.
      2. Petitions.
      3. Conclusion (MC 23).
    2. Per DS (SM 153).
      1. An address.
      2. Seven requests or petitions.
        1. All in "imperative form" (id).
        2. First Three: Deal with God.
        3. First Three: "addresses the glory of heavenly life" (D225)
        4. Some, per DS, say that "on earth as it is in heaven" "should be appended to each of the first three petitions" (id, see fn 25)
        5. Last Four petitions.
          1. "center on the life of the community of the disciples of Jesus" (SM 158)
          2. "focuses on the misery of earthly existence" (D225)
        6. Some scholars, per DS (SM 158)
          1. Only six petitions.
          2. Combine ones on temptation and evil.
          3. Forms perfect symmetry of three and three.
  3. "Our Father"
    1. Greek
      1. Mt 6:9: Pater h?m?n [Father of us]
      2. Lk 11:2: Pater [Father]
      3. Note "Father" comes first (SM 159)
    2. MC
      1. A short preface - two words.
      2. "Father"
        1. Grace is requested from the One we are asking.
        2. Can not seek to move His will and mind by "rhetorical manipulation" (MC 25)
      3. "our": we are the ones asking.
      4. By these words, we are moved to:
        1. attention.
        2. devotion.
        3. confidence.
        4. care to frame our prayers properly (id).
        5. "we show ourselves to be suitors the Lord would have" (id)
      5. What are the principal thoughts we are to have by these words?
        1. Prayer "ought not to be approached in a wishing manner" (MC 26)
          1. We are expressly naming Him, not in general terms only.
          2. As if it is communication.
          3. Prayer is to be directed either:
            1. through the Mediator, Jesus Christ.
            2. or to the Second Person (id).
          4. However worded, mind must always:
            1. think upon God
            2. and behold Him (id)
        2. They urge us to remember prayer is directed only to the heavenly Father. (id)
          1. Not to any creature.
          2. Is. 63:16.
        3. Words teach us that:
          1. We must think of Him and speak to Him as He has revealed His essence to us in the Word (MC 27)
          2. We "make a difference between our calling upon God and the prayers of the heathen". (id)
          3. "Father" here.
            1. to be understood essentially here for God.
            2. i.e. the Whole Trinity.
            3. Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
            4. Dt. 32:6.
            5. Is. 63:16 (again).
            6. Is. 9:6: Son called "Everlasting Father" (NIV)
            7. Holy Ghost "called the Father of the poor" (MC 27)
          4. Our minds should be set against:
            1. "flippancy"
            2. "inconsiderateness"
            3. "pride" (id)
          5. We are "before the Divine Majesty"
            1. Eph. 3:14.
            2. Ps. 141:2.
            3. Ps. 119:58
        4. "Father" may also be properly understood as ref. "very personally" to the First Person of the Trinity.
          1. When Father does something, it necessarily includes the Son.
          2. Jn. 10:30.
          3. Gal. 4:6.
          4. "Therefore, this title "Father" comprises not only the Father from eternity who has begotten his only begotten Son, but in respect of the Father, as the whole Trinity, it contains the benefits of our regeneration, adoption, and calling to a heavenly inheritance. In respect of the Son, the Mediator, it contains the merit, office, and benefits of his propitiation, reconciliation, and intercession." (MC 28)
          5. Urges us to find comfort in His promises.
          6. Jn 16:23.
          7. no doubting: Jas. 1:6.
          8. Mk. 11:24.
          9. We pray in faith and confidence, not pride.
          10. Da. 9:18.
          11. Reminder "of a very sweet consolation" (MC 29)
            1. Heb. 2:17.
            2. 1Jn. 2:1,2.
            3. Heb. 7:25.
            4. Heb. 4:16.
          12. Title also teaches us to examine ourselves re: our repentance.
        5. "Our Father"
          1. Jn 20:17.
          2. "Ours" by adoption.
          3. Includes all believers.
          4. No pride re: some claim of a "greater measure of grace" (MC 30)
          5. All alike in His flock.
          6. Also, puts "courage into the weak" (id).
          7. 1Pe 1:17.
        6. Title "urges us to brotherly love" (id)
          1. Mal. 2:10.
          2. Mt. 23:9.
          3. We pray also re: the whole flock and each member.
          4. Needs of whole body necessarily includes our's.
          5. Must apply "universal promise of the Fatherhood" to oneself.
          6. Jn 20:28.
          7. Ro. 1:8.
          8. Jer. 3:4.
          9. Jer. 3:19.
          10. Mt. 6:6.
  4. Additional thoughts from David Scaer.
    1. Mt's "Our Father" more formal than Lk's "Father".
      1. Suggests used liturgically, i.e. eucharistically (SM 158)
      2. Lk's shows further development in exposition following Prayer.
      3. Lk 11:13 - the giving of Spirit promised.
    2. This is only place in Matthew where he uses "our Father".
      1. Though "heavenly Father" and "Father in the heavens" used frequently. (SM 159)
      2. Only in Matthew and Mk 11:25 is God spoken of as "the Father in the heavens".
    3. Jesus:
      1. Speaks of God as "my Father" and as "your Father".
      2. Only here, places Himself with followers with "our".
      3. Within context of Matthew, shows He "has a special messianic consciousness not only about his mission but his person" (id).
      4. His followers:
        1. Not only taught all His teachings [Jn. 8:31,32]
        2. But also have been baptized. (Mt. 28:[19],20)
      5. Concept introduced in Mt. 5:9.
      6. Mt. 28:10.
    4. Matthew's "our Father"
      1. Has "literary, theological, and liturgical significance" (SM 160)
      2. "Matthew's gospel in intent, form, and context is for the church" (id)
    5. Luke's version addressing "the personal life of the church members". (SM 161)
    6. "Still, its private use always reflected its public use." (id)
  5. Confessions
    1. S.C. III, 1,2 (Tappert, p. 346; Kolb & Wengert, p. 356)
    2. [L.C., III, 1-34 (Tappert, pp. 420-425; Kolb & Wengert, pp. 440-445]

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